Airborne implements two technologies,
namely ARTVA and RECCO.

The ARTVA and RECCO technologies are different and often simultaneously used in real scenarious.

The ARTVA system is composed by two elements which are a transmitter, worn by the missing people, and a receiver, held by the rescuer. The transmitter is active and emits a pulsating (electro-) magnetic field, which looks like a classic magnetic dipole (see figure), which is sensed by the rescuer device (and in prospective installed on the drone).
The available data, at the receiver side, are the angle d between the longitudinal receiver direction and the magnetic field, and the distance d inversely proportional to the modulus of the magnetic field. These two outputs assume different values based on the three operative search phases introduced in the next section.
The RECCO technology is also based on two devices which are a transceiver and a reflector. The transceiver is held by the rescuer and is composed by a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter emits an electro-magnetic field which, echoed by the reflector worn by the missing people, is elaborated by the receiver to provide an acoustic feedback to the rescuer. The signal intensity varies based on the relative distance between the transceiver and the reflector and their relative orientation. By rotating the transceiver the rescuer can find, for each relative position, the best relative attitude maximizing the sound intensity. The rescuer can regulate the transceiver output power during the search to the final accurate pinpointing.

The ARTVA system is composed by two elements which are a transmitter, worn by the missing people, and a receiver, held by the rescuer. The transmitter is active and emits a pulsating (electro-) magnetic field, which looks like a classic magnetic dipole (see figure), which is sensed by the rescuer device (and in prospective installed on the drone). The available data, at the receiver side, are the angle d between the longitudinal receiver direction and the magnetic field, and the distance d inversely proportional to the modulus of the magnetic field. These two outputs assume different values based on the three operative search phases introduced in the next section.

Primary Search. When the victim is outside the sensor range the two sensor output (d, d) are the meaningless and both conventionally fixed to -1.

Secondary search. As soon as the receiver get sufficiently close to the trasmitter, a valid ARVA is captured and the sensors provides the angle d and the distance d to the victim.

Tertiary search (pinpointing). As soon as the intensity of the magnetic field exceeds a certain threshold, which happen when the sensor gets really close to the victim, the receiver only outputs the distance d to the victim. The final search, then, is only conducted with an intensity measure.

The RECCO technology is also based on two devices which are a transceiver and a reflector. The transceiver is held by the rescuer and is composed by a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter emits an electro-magnetic field which, echoed by the reflector worn by the missing people, is elaborated by the receiver to provide an acoustic feedback to the rescuer. The signal intensity varies based on the relative distance between the transceiver and the reflector and their relative orientation. By rotating the transceiver the rescuer can find, for each relative position, the best relative attitude maximizing the sound intensity. The rescuer can regulate the transceiver output power during the search to the final accurate pinpointing.

Rescuer start with the transceiver set at the maximum power. In these operative condition the geometric range in which the reflector can be detected is wide and so not accurate.

Once the first signal is detected, the rescuer gradually decreases the emitted power which approaching to the reflector. In this way, since geometric range in which the reflector is detectable decrease, the search is gradually more accurate.

Once the transceiver is set to the minimum power, the fine pinpointing search is performed, similarly to the ARVA case.

Primary Search. When the victim is outside the sensor range the two sensor output (d, d) are the meaningless and both conventionally fixed to -1.

Rescuer start with the transceiver set at the maximum power. In these operative condition the geometric range in which the reflector can be detected is wide and so not accurate.
Secondary search. As soon as the receiver get sufficiently close to the trasmitter, a valid ARVA is captured and the sensors provides the angle d and the distance d to the victim.
Once the first signal is detected, the rescuer gradually decreases the emitted power which approaching to the reflector. In this way, since geometric range in which the reflector is detectable decrease, the search is gradually more accurate.
Tertiary search (pinpointing). As soon as the intensity of the magnetic field exceeds a certain threshold, which happen when the sensor gets really close to the victim, the receiver only outputs the distance d to the victim. The final search, then, is only conducted with an intensity measure.
Once the transceiver is set to the minimum power, the fine pinpointing search is performed, similarly to the ARVA case.

THE NETWORK

The robotic technologies, then, will constitute the initial “technological seed” on which an innovative ICT technology service network will be constituted at European level with the final goal of feeding professional S&R teams/associations with effective ICT technologies by creating a business opportunity and contributing to address several shortcomings of current operations. Technological Hubs (TH) located in strategic positions on the territory and directly linked to the S&R professional teams characterize the network. The teams will be involved as advanced-users to co-develop and test the model with dedicated options for revenue sharing to compensate their contribution.

 This model directly implement all three components of Social Innovation as defined at the EU level by meeting specific social needs, strengthening social relations and form new collaborations. The TH act as pivots in which the technology is guarded on the territory and dispensed to local S&R teams (which are the many final end-users operating in that territory) on emergency, and around which local communities/associations engaged in S&R activity gravitate, by providing feedback for technology update, ideas for new developments, benefiting from services related to the technology adoption, and helping the growth of the initiative by stimulating new hubs.